Publications

FXPAL publishes in top scientific conferences and journals.

2004
Publication Details
  • UIST 2004 Companion, pp. 13-14
  • Oct 24, 2004

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We developed a novel technique for creating visually pleasing collages from photo regions. The technique is called "stained glass" because the resulting collage with irregular shapes is reminiscent of a stained glass window. The collages reuse photos in novel ways to present photos with faces that can be printed, included in Web pages, or shared via email. The poster describes the requirements for creating stained glass visualizations from photos of faces, our approach for creating face stained glass, and techniques used to improve the aesthetics and flexibility of the stained glass generation. Early user feedback with face stained glass have been very positive.

Remote Interactive Graffiti

Publication Details
  • Proc. ACM Multimedia 2004
  • Oct 12, 2004

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We present an installation that allows distributed internet participants to "draw" on a public scene using light. The iLight system is a camera/projector system designed for remote collaboration. Using a familiar digital drawing interface, remote users "draw" on a live video image of a real-life object or scene. Graphics drawn by the user are then projected onto the scene, where they are visible in the camera image. Because camera distortions are corrected and the video is aligned with the image canvas, drawn graphics appear exactly where desired. Thus the remote users may harmlessly mark a physical object to serve their own their artistic and/or expressive needs. We also describe how local participants may interact with remote users through the projected images. Besides the intrinsic "neat factor" of action at a distance, this installation serves as an experiment in how multiple users from different locales and cultures can create a social space that interacts with a physical one, as well as raising issues of free expression in a non-destructive context.
Publication Details
  • Proceedings of the International Workshop on Multimedia Information Retrieval, ACM Press, pp. 99-106
  • Oct 10, 2004

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With digital still cameras, users can easily collect thousands of photos. We have created a photo management application with the goal of making photo organization and browsing simple and quick, even for very large collections. A particular concern is the management of photos depicting people. We present a semi-automatic approach designed to facilitate the task of labeling photos with people that opportunistically takes advantage of the strengths of current state-of-the-art technology in face detection and recognition. In particular, an accurate face detector is used to automatically extract faces from photos while the less accurate face recognizer is used not to classify the detected faces, but to sort faces by their similarity to a chosen model. This sorting is used to present candidate faces within a user interface designed for quick and easy face labeling. We present results of a simulation of the usage model that demonstrate the improved ease that is achieved by our method.
Publication Details
  • IEEE Computer Graphics & Applications, pp. 66-75
  • Sep 1, 2004

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Information sharing, computation and social interaction are main features of the Web that has enabled online communities to abound and flourish. However, this trend has not been coupled with the development of cues and browsing mechanisms for the social space. On the flip side, active contributors to social spaces (i.e., Web communities) lack the means to present a public face to visitors that can be important for social organizations. Social browsers that combine social visualization and tools can enable newcomers and visitors to view and explore information and patterns. We present two social browsers for two Web communities. The CHIplace People browser provides an abstract graphical view of the CHIplace community based on the self-described work roles of its membership. The Portkey eTree browser uses a life-like tree ecosystem metaphor to reflect the people, activities and discussions occurring on the Portkey Web site.
Publication Details
  • In Proceedings of Hypertext 2004, ACM Press
  • Aug 9, 2004

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The preservation of literary hypertexts presents significant challenges if we are to ensure continued access to them as the underlying technology changes. Not only does such an effort involve standard digital preservation problems of representing and refreshing metadata, any constituent media types, and structure; hypertext preservation poses additional dimensions that arise from the work's on-screen appearance, its interactive behavior, and the ways a reader's interaction with the work is recorded. In this paper, we describe aspects of preservation introduced by literary hypertexts such as the need to reproduce their modes of interactivity and their means of capturing and using records of reading. We then suggest strategies for addressing the pragmatic dimensions of hypertext preservation and discuss their status within existing digital preservation schemes. Finally, we examine the possible roles various stakeholders within and outside of the hypertext community might assume, including several social and legal issues that stem from preservation.

Hybrid Text Summarization: Combining external relevance measures with Structural Analysis

Publication Details
  • Proceedings of the ACL2004 Workshop Text Summarization Branches Out, Barcelona, Spain, July 25-26, 2004.
  • Jul 25, 2004

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A novel linguistically advanced text summarization system is described for reducing the minimum size of highly readable variable-sized summaries of digitized text documents produced by text summarization methods that use discourse analysis to rank sentences for in-clusion in the final summary. The basic algorithm used in FXPAL's PALSUMM text summarization system combines text structure methods that preserve readability and correct reference resolution with statistical methods to reduce overall summary length while promoting the inclusion of important material.

Sentential Structure and Discourse Parsing

Publication Details
  • Proceedings of the ACL2004 Workshop on Discourse Annotation, Barcelona, Spain, July 25-26, 2004.
  • Jul 25, 2004

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In this paper, we describe how the LIDAS System (Linguistic Discourse Analysis System), a discourse parser built as an implementation of the Unified Linguistic Discourse Model (U-LDM) uses information from sentential syntax and semantics along with lexical semantic information to build the Open Right Discourse Parse Tree (DPT) that serves as a representation of the structure of the discourse (Polanyi et al., 2004; Thione 2004a,b). More specifically, we discuss how discourse segmentation, sentence-level discourse parsing, and text-level discourse parsing depend on the relationship between sentential syntax and discourse. Specific discourse rules that use syntactic information are used to identify possible attachment points and attachment relations for each Basic Discourse Unit to the DPT.

LiveTree: An Integrated Workbench for Discourse Processing

Publication Details
  • Proceedings of the ACL2004 Workshop on Discourse Annotation, Barcelona, Spain, July 25-26, 2004.
  • Jul 25, 2004

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In this paper, we introduce LiveTree, a core component of LIDAS, the Linguistic Discourse Analysis System for automatic discourse parsing with the Unified Linguistic Discourse Model. LiveTree is an integrated workbench for supervised and unsupervised creation, storage and manipulation of the discourse structure of text documents under the U-LDM. The LiveTree environment provides tools for manual and automatic U-LDM segmentation and discourse parsing. Document management, grammar testing, manipulation of discourse structures and creation and editing of discourse relations are also supported.
Publication Details
  • Proceedings of 2004 IEEE International Conference on Multimedia and Expo (ICME 2004)
  • Jun 27, 2004

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This paper presents a method for creating highly condensed video summaries called Stained-Glass visualizations. These are especially suitable for small displays on mobile devices. A morphological grouping technique is described for finding 3D regions of high activity or motion from a video embedded in x-y-t space. These regions determine areas in the keyframes, which can be subsumed in a more general geometric framework of germs and supports: germs are the areas of interest, and supports give the context. Algorithms for packing and laying out the germs are provided. Gaps between the germs are filled using a Voronoi-based method. Irregular shapes emerge, and the result looks like stained glass.
Publication Details
  • Proceedings of 2004 IEEE International Conference on Multimedia and Expo (ICME 2004)
  • Jun 27, 2004

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Using a machine to assist remote environment management can save people's time, effort, and traveling cost. This paper proposes a trainable mobile robot system, which allows people to watch a remote site through a set of cameras installed on the robot, drive the platform around, and control remote devices using mouse or pen based gestures performed in video windows. Furthermore, the robot can learn device operations when it is being used by humans. After being used for a while, the robot can automatically select device control interfaces, or launch a pre-defined operation sequence based on its sensory inputs.
Publication Details
  • Proceedings of 2004 IEEE International Conference on Multimedia and Expo (ICME 2004)
  • Jun 27, 2004

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Many conference rooms are now equipped with multiple multi-media devices, such as plasma displays and surrounding speakers, to enhance presentation quality. However, most existing presentation authoring tools are based on the one-display-and-one-speaker assumption, which makes it difficult to organize and playback a presentation dispatched to multiple devices, thus hinders users from taking full advantage of additional multimedia devices. In this paper, we propose and implement a tool to facilitate authoring and playback of a multi-channel presentation in a media devices distributed environment. The tool, named PreAuthor, provides an intuitive and visual way to author a multi-channel presentation by dragging and dropping "hyper-slides" on corresponding visual representations of various devices. PreAuthor supports "hyper-slide" synchronization among various output devices during preview and playback. It also offers multiple options for the presenter to view the presentation in a rendered image sequence, live video, 3D VRML model, or real environment.
Publication Details
  • JOINT AMI/PASCAL/IM2/M4 Workshop on Multimodal Interaction and Related Machine Learning Algorithms
  • Jun 22, 2004

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For some years, our group at FX Palo Alto Laboratory has been developing technologies to support meeting recording, collaboration, and videoconferencing. This paper presents a few of our more interesting research directions. Many of our systems use a video image as an interface, allowing devices and information to be accessed "through the screen." For example, SPEC enables hybrid collaborative and automatic camera control through an active video window. The NoteLook system allows a user to grab an image from a computer display, annotate it with digital ink, then drag it to that or a different display, while automatically generating timestamps for later video review. The ePIC system allows natural use and control of multi-display and multi-device presentation spaces, and the iLight system allows remote users to "draw" with light on a local object. All our systems serve as platforms for researching more sophisticated algorithms that will hopefully support additional advanced functions and ease of use.
Publication Details
  • ED-Media 2004
  • Jun 21, 2004

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This paper presents a system designed to support note taking by students on wirelessly connected PDAs in a classroom. The system leverages the devices' wireless connectivity to allow students to share their notes in real time and quickly reuse words from their fellow note takers. In addition, presentation material such as Powerpoint slides is also extracted when presented by the instructor, giving students further means for reusing words. We describe the system and report our findings on an initial user study where the system was used for four months during a graduate level course.
Publication Details
  • Journal of Human Interface Society, 6(2), pp. 51-58
  • Jun 1, 2004

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FX Palo Alto Laboratory provides multimedia and information technology research for the Fuji Xerox corporation based in Tokyo, Japan. FXPAL's mission is to help Fuji Xerox with a digital information technology infrastructure to support services in Fuji Xerox's Open Office Frontier. Our research spans interactive media, immersive conferencing, social computing, mobile and adaptive computing, natural language inquiry, and emerging technologies such as quantum computing and bioinformatics. Our research methods combine determining user needs, inventing new technologies, building prototype systems, informing professional communities, and transferring technology to Fuji Xerox. The physical distance between our laboratory and our parent company makes it natural for us to research problems with collaborations across time zones and cultures. To address these problems, to test our ideas, and to prepare for technology transfers, we actively create prototype systems for interactive media, immersive conferencing, and social and mobile computing. We also foster collaboration with our Japanese colleagues through a combination of face-to-face visits and both synchronous and asynchronous remote communication.
Publication Details
  • Proceedings of the Working Conference on Advanced Visual Interfaces, AVI 2004, pp. 290-297
  • May 25, 2004

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We introduced detail-on-demand video as a simple type of hypervideo that allows users to watch short video segments and to follow hyperlinks to see additional detail. Such video lets users quickly access desired information without having to view the entire contents linearly. A challenge for presenting this type of video is to provide users with the appropriate affordances to understand the hypervideo structure and to navigate it effectively. Another challenge is to give authors tools that allow them to create good detail-on-demand video. Guided by user feedback, we iterated designs for a detail-on-demand video player. We also conducted two user studies to gain insight into people's understanding of hypervideo and to improve the user interface. We found that the interface design was tightly coupled to understanding hypervideo structure and that different designs greatly affected what parts of the video people accessed. The studies also suggested new guidelines for hypervideo authoring.
Publication Details
  • ACM Interactions Magazine
  • May 1, 2004

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This article describes two years of experience with a research prototype for personalizing shared workplace devices such as projectors, public displays, and multi-function copiers. The system combines users' networked resources-or "personal information clouds"—with device-specific user interfaces for performing common device tasks. We developed and compared personal interfaces that are embedded (i.e., integrated or co-located with the shared device) and portable (i.e., accessible via personal devices such as mobile phones and PDAs). Our experience indicates that a little personalization can go a long way toward improving user friendliness, efficiency, and capabilities of shared document devices, helping them "weave themselves into the fabric of everyday life". We also gained important insights into subtle differences between embedded and portable approaches to ubiquitous computing systems.

A Rule Based Approach to Discourse Parsing

Publication Details
  • Proceedings of the 5th SIGdial Workshop in Discourse And Dialogue. Cambridge, MA USA pp. 108-117.
  • May 1, 2004

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In this paper we present recent developments in discourse theory and parsing under the Linguistic Discourse Model framework, a semantic theory of discourse structure. We give a novel approach to the problems of discourse segmentation based on discourse semantics and sketch a limited but robust approach to symbolic discourse parsing based on syntactic, semantic and lexical rules. To demonstrate the utilioty of the system in a real application, we briefly describe the architecture of the PALSUMM System, a symbolic smmarization system being developed at FX Palo Alto Laboratory that uses discourse structures constructed usding the theory otlined to summarize written English texts.

MiniMedia Surfer: Browsing Video Segments on Small Displays

Publication Details
  • CHI 2004 short paper
  • Apr 27, 2004

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It is challenging to browse multimedia on mobile devices with small displays. We present MiniMedia Surfer, a prototype application for interactively searching a multimedia collection for video segments of interest. Transparent layers are used to support browsing subtasks: keyword query, exploration of results through keyframes, and playback of video. This layered interface smoothly blends the key tasks of the browsing process and deals with the small screen size. During exploration, the user can adjust the transparency levels of the layers using pen gestures. Details of the video segments are displayed in an expandable timeline that supports gestural interaction.

Sharing Multimedia Content with Interactive Displays: A Case Study

Publication Details
  • ACM DIS 2004, Cambridge, August 1-4, 2004. New York: ACM
  • Apr 18, 2004

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The Plasma Posters are large screen, digital, interactive posterboards designed for informal content sharing within teams, groups, organizations and communities. Leveraging the fact that the physical world is often used as a canvas for asynchronous information exchange via paper fliers and posters, the Plasma Posters provide a platform for sharing interactive digital content in public places. People serendipitously encounter multimedia content usually only encountered from the desktop, while going about their daily business. In this paper we describe the Plasma Poster interface in detail, and offer and overview of the underlying information authoring, parsing, storage, distribution and publishing infrastructure, the Plasma Poster Network. We report qualitative and quantitative data collected over 14 months of use that demonstrate the Plasma Posters have become an integral part of information sharing within our organization. We conclude the paper by reflecting on the patterns of adoption, and speculate on factors that have contributed to the system's success. Finally we briefly describe three other installations of the Plasma Poster Network and new interfaces that have been designed.

Collaborative Note Taking

Publication Details
  • WMTE 2004
  • Mar 22, 2004

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Collaborative note taking enables students in a class to take notes on their PDAs and share them with their "study group" in real-time. Students receive instructor's slides on their PDAs as they are displayed by the instructor. As the individual members of the group take notes pertaining to the slide being presented, their notes are automatically sent to all members of the group. In addition, to reduce their typing, students can use text they receive from other students and from the instructors slides to construct their notes. This system has been used in actual practice for a graduate level course on wireless mobile computing. In developing this system, special attention has been paid to the task of inputting text on PDAs, efficient use of the screen real estate, dynamics among students, privacy and ease of use issues.

Shot boundary detection via similarity analysis

Publication Details
  • Proceedings TRECVID 2003
  • Mar 1, 2004

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In this paper, we present a framework for analyzing video using self-similarity. Video scenes are located by analyzing inter-frame similarity matrices. The approach is flexible to the choice of both feature parametrization and similarity measure and it is robust because the data is used to model itself. We present the approach and its application to shot boundary detection.

Digital Graffiti: Public Annotation of Multimedia Content

Publication Details
  • CHI 2004, Vienna, Austria, April 24-29, 2004. New York: ACM Publications.
  • Feb 26, 2004

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Our physical environment is increasingly filled with multimedia content on situated, community public displays. We are designing methods for people to post and acquire digital information to and from public digital displays, and to modify and annotate previously posted content to create publicly observable threads. We support in-the-moment and on-site "person-to-place-to-people-to-persons" content interaction, annotation, augmentation and publication. We draw design inspiration from field work observations of how people remove, modify and mark up paper postings. We present our initial designs in this arena, and some initial user reactions.

Gooey Interfaces: An Approach for Rapidly Repurposing Digital Content

Publication Details
  • CHI 2004, Vienna, Austria, April 24-29, 2004. New York: ACM Publications
  • Feb 20, 2004

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With the acceleration of technological development we are reaching the point where our systems and their user interfaces become to some degree outdated 'legacy systems' as soon as they are released. This raises the question of how can we maintain, extend, override, and adapt these systems while preserving what people depend on in them? In this paper we describe an approach for dynamically restructuring user interfaces into a set of communicating processes that 1) provide methods for changing their appearance, behavior, and state; and 2) report their proposed state changes so that other processes may override their actions in updating themselves to a new state. We do this for both new and wrapped legacy user interface components, thereby allowing us to repurpose user interfaces for our evolving needs. We describe how this approach has been successfully used in rapidly creating and deploying interfaces that repurpose content for new appearances and behaviors.