Publications

FXPAL publishes in top scientific conferences and journals.

2000
Publication Details
  • In Proceedings of the Genetic and Evolutionary Computation Conference, Morgan Kaufmann Publishers, pp. 666-673, 2000.
  • Jul 8, 2000

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We describe a genetic segmentation algorithm for image data streams and video. This algorithm operates on segments of a string representation. It is similar to both classical genetic algorithms that operate on bits of a string and genetic grouping algorithms that operate on subsets of a set. It employs a segment fair crossover operation. For evaluating segmentations, we define similarity adjacency functions, which are extremely expensive to optimize with traditional methods. The evolutionary nature of genetic algorithms offers a further advantage by enabling incremental segmentation. Applications include browsing and summarizing video and collections of visually rich documents, plus a way of adapting to user access patterns.
Publication Details
  • In Japan Hardcopy 2000, The Annual Conference of the Imaging Society of Japan. 6/12 6/14 2000.
  • Jun 12, 2000
Publication Details
  • In Proceedings of Hypertext '00, ACM Press, pp. 244-245, 2000.
  • May 30, 2000

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We describe a way to make a hypermedia meeting record from multimedia meeting documents by automatically generating links through image matching. In particular, we look at video recordings and scanned paper handouts of presentation slides with ink annotations. The algorithm that we employ is the Discrete Cosine Transform (DCT). Interactions with multipath links and paper interfaces are discussed.

Hypertext Interaction Revisited

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  • In Proceedings of Hypertext '00, ACM Press, pp. 171-179, 2000
  • May 30, 2000

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Much of hypertext narrative relies on links to shape a reader's interaction with the text. But links may be too limited to express ambiguity, imprecision, and entropy, or to admit new modes of participation short of full collaboration. We use an e-book form to explore the implications of freeform annotation-based interaction with hypertext narrative. Readers' marks on the text can be used to guide navigation, create a persistent record of a reading, or to recombine textual elements as a means of creating a new narrative. In this paper, we describe how such an experimental capability was created on top of XLibris, a next generation e-book, using Forward Anywhere as the hypernarrative. We work through a scenario of interaction, and discuss the issues the work raises
Publication Details
  • In RIAO'2000 Conference Proceedings, Content-Based Multimedia Information Access, C.I.D., pp. 637-648, 2000.
  • Apr 12, 2000

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We present and interactive system that allows a user to locate regions of video that are similar to a video query. Thus segments of video can be found by simply providing an example of the video of interest. The user selects a video segment for the query from either a static frame-based interface or a video player. A statistical model of the query is calculated on-the-fly, and is used to find similar regions of video. The similarity measure is based on a Gaussian model of reduced frame image transform coefficients. Similarity in a single video is displayed in the Metadata Media Player. The player can be used to navigate through the video by jumping between regions of similarity. Similarity can be rapidly calculated for multiple video files as well. These results are displayed in MBase, a Web-based video browser that allows similarity in multiple video files to be visualized simultaneously.

Anchored Conversations. Chatting in the Context of a Document.

Publication Details
  • In CHI 2000 Conference Proceedings, ACM Press, pp. 454-461, 2000.
  • Mar 31, 2000

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This paper describes an application-independent tool called Anchored Conversations that brings together text-based conversations and documents. The design of Anchored Conversations is based on our observations of the use of documents and text chats in collaborative settings. We observed that chat spaces support work conversations, but they do not allow the close integration of conversations with work documents that can be seen when people are working together face-to-face. Anchored Conversations directly addresses this problem by allowing text chats to be anchored into documents. Anchored Conversations also facilitates document sharing; accepting an invitation to an anchored conversation results in the document being automatically uploaded. In addition, Anchored Conversations provides support for review, catch-up and asynchronous communications through a database. In this paper we describe motivating fieldwork, the design of Anchored Conversations, a scenario of use, and some preliminary results from a user study.
Publication Details
  • In CHI 2000 Conference Proceedings, ACM Press, pp. 185-192, 2000.
  • Mar 31, 2000

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This paper presents a method for generating compact pictorial summarizations of video. We developed a novel approach for selecting still images from a video suitable for summarizing the video and for providing entry points into it. Images are laid out in a compact, visually pleasing display reminiscent of a comic book or Japanese manga. Users can explore the video by interacting with the presented summary. Links from each keyframe start video playback and/or present additional detail. Captions can be added to presentation frames to include commentary or descriptions such as the minutes of a recorded meeting. We conducted a study to compare variants of our summarization technique. The study participants judged the manga summary to be significantly better than the other two conditions with respect to their suitability for summaries and navigation, and their visual appeal.

Beyond Bits: The Future of Quantum Information Processing.

Publication Details
  • IEEE Computer, pp. 38-45, January 2000.
  • Feb 1, 2000

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Recently, physicists and computer scientists have realized that not only do our ideas about computing rest on only partly accurate principles, but they miss out on a whole class of computation. Quantum physics offers powerful methods of encoding and manipulating information that are not possible within a classical framework. The potential applications of these quantum information processing methods include provably secure key distribution for cryptography, rapid integer factoring, and quantum simulation.
1999
Publication Details
  • In Proceedings of GROUP '99 (Phoenix, AZ), ACM Press, 1999.
  • Nov 14, 1999

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The development of tools to support synchronous communications between non-collocated colleagues has received considerable attention in recent years. Much of the work has focused on increasing a sense of co-presence between interlocutors by supporting aspects of face-to-face conversations that go beyond mere words (e.g. gaze, postural shifts). In this regard, a design goal for many environments is the provision of as much media-richness as possible to support non-collocated communication. In this paper we present results from our most recent interviews studying the use of a text-based virtual environment to support work collaborations. We describe how such an environment, though lacking almost all the visual and auditory cues known to be important in face-to-face conversation, has played an important role in day-to-day communication. We offer a set of characteristics we feel are important to the success of this text-only tool and discuss issues emerging from its long-term use.
Publication Details
  • In Proceedings of ACM Multimedia '99, Orlando, Florida, November 1999.
  • Oct 30, 1999

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NoteLook is a client-server system designed and built to support multimedia note taking in meetings with digital video and ink. It is integrated into a conference room equipped with computer controllable video cameras, video conference camera, and a large display rear video projector. The NoteLook client application runs on wireless pen-based notebook computers. Video channels containing images of the room activity and presentation material are transmitted by the NoteLook servers to the clients, and the images can be interactively and automatically incorporated into the note pages. Users can select channels, snap in large background images and sequences of thumbnails, and write freeform ink notes. A smart video source management component enables the capture of high quality images of the presentation material from a variety of sources. For accessing and browsing the notes and recorded video, NoteLook generates Web pages with links from the images and ink strokes correlated to the video.
Publication Details
  • In Proceedings ACM Multimedia, (Orlando, FL) ACM Press, pp. 383-392, 1999.
  • Oct 30, 1999

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This paper presents methods for automatically creating pictorial video summaries that resemble comic books. The relative importance of video segments is computed from their length and novelty. Image and audio analysis is used to automatically detect and emphasize meaningful events. Based on this importance measure, we choose relevant keyframes. Selected keyframes are sized by importance, and then efficiently packed into a pictorial summary. We present a quantitative measure of how well a summary captures the salient events in a video, and show how it can be used to improve our summaries. The result is a compact and visually pleasing summary that captures semantically important events, and is suitable for printing or Web access. Such a summary can be further enhanced by including text captions derived from OCR or other methods. We describe how the automatically generated summaries are used to simplify access to a large collection of videos.
Publication Details
  • In Proceedings of ACM Multimedia '99, pp. 77-80, Orlando, Florida, November 1999
  • Oct 30, 1999

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This paper presents a novel approach to visualizing the time structure of music and audio. The acoustic similarity between any two instants of an audio recording is calculated and displayed as a two-dimensional representation. Similar or repeating elements are visually distinct, allowing identification of structural and rhythmic characteristics. Visualization examples are presented for orchestral, jazz, and popular music. Applications include content-based analysis and segmentation, as well as tempo and structure extraction.

Tools for Quantum Algorithms

Publication Details
  • Int.J.Mod.Phys. C10 (1999) 1347-1362
  • Oct 29, 1999

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We present efficient implementations of a number of operations for quantum computers. These include controlled phase adjustments of the amplitudes in a superposition, permutations, approximations of transformations and generalizations of the phase adjustments to block matrix transformations. These operations generalize those used in proposed quantum search algorithms.
Publication Details
  • In Proceedings of the Second International Workshop on Cooperative Buildings (CoBuild'99). Lecture Notes in Computer Science, Vol. 1670 Springer-Verlag, pp. 79-88, 1999.
  • Oct 1, 1999

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We describe a media enriched conference room designed for capturing meetings. Our goal is to do this in a flexible, seamless, and unobtrusive manner in a public conference room that is used for everyday work. Room activity is captured by computer controllable video cameras, video conference cameras, and ceiling microphones. Presentation material displayed on a large screen rear video projector is captured by a smart video source management component that automatically locates the highest fidelity image source. Wireless pen-based notebook computers are used to take notes, which provide indexes to the captured meeting. Images can be interactively and automatically incorporated into the notes. Captured meetings may be browsed on the Web with links to recorded video.
Publication Details
  • In Human-Computer Interaction INTERACT '99, IOS Press, pp. 458-465, 1999.
  • Aug 30, 1999

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In our Portholes research, we found that users needed to have a sense of being in public and to know who can see them (audience) and who is looking currently at them (lookback). Two redesigns of the Portholes display present a 3D theater view of the audience. Different sections display core team members, non-core team members and lookback. An experiment determined that people have strong preferences about audience information and how it should be displayed. Layout preferences are varied, but unfolding techniques and cluster analysis reveal that these preference perspectives fall into four groups of similar preferences.
Publication Details
  • In Human-Computer Interaction INTERACT '99, IOS Press, pp. 205-212, 1999.
  • Aug 30, 1999

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When reviewing collections of video such as recorded meetings or presentations, users are often interested only in an overview or short segments of these documents. We present techniques that use automatic feature analysis, such as slide detection and applause detection, to help locate the desired video and to navigate to regions of interest within it. We built a web-based interface that graphically presents information about the contents of each video in a collection such as its keyframes and the distribution of a particular feature over time. A media player is tightly integrated with the web interface. It supports navigation within a selected file by visualiz-ing confidence scores for the presence of features and by using them as index points. We conducted a user study to refine the usability of these tools.