Publications

FXPAL publishes in top scientific conferences and journals.

2011

Session-based search with Querium

Publication Details
  • HCIR 2011
  • Oct 20, 2011

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We illustrate the use of Querium, a novel search system designed to support people's collaborative and multi-session search tasks, in the context of the HCIR 2011 Search Challenge. This report demonstrates how a Querium's interface and search engine can be used to search for documents in an open-ended, exploratory task. We illustrate the use of relevance feedback, faceted search, query fusion, and the search history, as well as commenting and overview functions.

Designing for Collaboration in Information Seeking

Publication Details
  • HCIR 2011
  • Oct 19, 2011

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Information seeking is often a collaborative activity that can take can take many forms; in this paper we focus on explicit, intentional collaboration of small and explore a range of design decisions that should be considered when building Human-Computer Information Retrieval (HCIR) tools that support collaboration. In particular, we are interested in exploring the interplay between algorithmic mediation of collaboration and the mediated communication among team members. We argue that certain characteristics of the group's information need call for different design decisions.
Publication Details
  • Oct 3, 2011

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Documents created, stored, and retrieved digitally are often printed on paper to be read for the purposes of producing new documents. The cycle of electronic document "consumption" and production is often broken in the middle by printing. Our research in XLibris has examined these transitions between the digital and paper worlds. Starting with interfaces for analytic reading, we have focused on annotation, on retrieval and re-retrieval, and on shared annotation. In this talk, I will describe the interfaces and the empirical evaluations we have conducted, and will discuss the potential of this technology in digital--and in physical--libraries.

PaperUI

Publication Details
  • CBDAR 2011
  • Sep 18, 2011

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PaperUI is a human-computer interface concept that treats paper as displays that users can interact with via mobile devices such as mobile phones and projectors. It combines the merits of paper and the mobile devices. Compared with traditional laptops and tablet PCs, devices involved in this concept are more light-weight, compact, energy efficient, and widely adopted. Therefore, we believe this interface vision can make computation more convenient to access for general public. With our implemented prototype, pilot users can read documents easily and comfortably on paper, and access many digital functions related to the document via a camera phone or a mobile projector Invited Talk. http://imlab.jp/cbdar2011/#keynote

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This demo shows an interactive paper system called MixPad, which features using mice and keyboards to enhance the conventional pen-finger-gesture based interaction with paper documents. Similar to many interactive paper systems, MixPad adopts a mobile camera-projector unit to recognize paper documents, detect pen and finger gestures and provide visual feedback. Unlike these systems, MixPad allows using mice and keyboards to help users interact with fine-grained document content on paper (e.g. individual words and user-defined arbitrary regions), and to facilitate cross-media operations. For instance, to copy a document segment from paper to a laptop, one first points a finger of her non-dominant hand to the segment roughly, and then uses a mouse in her dominant hand to refine the selection and drag it to the laptop; she can also type text as a detailed comment on a paper document. This novel interaction paradigm combines the advantages of mice, keyboards, pens and fingers, and therefore enables rich digital functions on paper.
Publication Details
  • MobileHCI
  • Aug 30, 2011

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Modern office work practices increasingly breach traditional boundaries of time and place, increasing breakdowns workers encounter when coordinating interaction with colleagues. We conducted interviews with 12 workers and identified key problems introduced by these practices. To address these problems we developed myUnity, a fully functional platform enabling rich workplace awareness and coordination. myUnity is one of the first integrated platforms to span mobile and desktop environments, both in terms of access and sensing. It uses multiple sources to report user location, availability, tasks, and communication channels. A pilot field study of myUnity demonstrated the significant value of pervasive access to workplace awareness and communication facilities, as well as positive behavioral change in day-to-day communication practices for most users. We present resulting insights about the utility of awareness technology in flexible work environments.
Publication Details
  • International Journal of Arts and Technology
  • Jul 25, 2011

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Mobile media applications need to balance user and group goals, attentional constraints, and limited screen real estate. In this paper, we describe the iterative development and testing of an application that explores these tradeo ffs. We developed early prototypes of a retrospective, time-based system as well as a prospective and space-based system. Our experiences with the prototypes led us to focus on the prospective system. We argue that attentional demands dominate and mobile media applications should be lightweight and hands-free as much as possible.

Estimation Methods for Ranking Recent Information

Publication Details
  • SIGIR2011
  • Jul 24, 2011

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Temporal aspects of documents can impact relevance for certain kinds of queries. In this paper, we build on earlier work of modeling temporal information. We propose an extension to the Query Likelihood Model that incorporates query-specific information to estimate rate parameters, and we introduce a temporal factor into language model smoothing and query expansion using pseudo-relevance feedback. We evaluate these extensions using a Twitter corpus and two newspaper article collections. Results suggest that, compared to prior approaches, our models are more effective at capturing the temporal variability of relevance associated with some topics.

Secured histories for presence systems

Publication Details
  • SECOTS 2011
  • May 23, 2011

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As sensors become ever more prevalent, more and more information will be collected about each of us. A longterm research question is how best to support beneficial uses while preserving individual privacy. Presence systems are an emerging class of applications that support collaboration. These systems leverage pervasive sensors to estimate end-user location, activities, and available communication channels. Because such presence data are sensitive, to achieve wide-spread adoption, sharing models must reflect the privacy and sharing preferences of the users. To reflect users' collaborative relationships and sharing desires, we introduce CollaPSE security in which an individual has full access to her own data, a third party processes the data without learning anything about the data values, and users higher up in the hierarchy learn only statistical information about the employees under them. We describe simple schemes that efficiently realize CollaPSE security for time series data. We implemented these protocols using readily available cryptographic functions, and integrated the protocols with FXPAL's MyUnity presence system.
Publication Details
  • CHI 2011 Workshop on Mobile and Personal Projection (MP2)
  • May 8, 2011

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The field of personal mobile projection is advancing quickly and a variety of work focuses on enhancing physical objects in the real world with dynamically projected digital artifacts. Due to technological restrictions, none of them has yet investigated, what we feel is the most promising research direction: the (bi-manual) interaction with mobile projections on non-planar surfaces. To elicit the challenges of this field of research, we contribute (1) a technology-centered design space for mobile projector-based interfaces and discus related work in light thereof, (2) a discussion on lessons learnt from two of our research projects, which aim at improving both usability and user experience and (3) an outline of open research challenges within this field.
Publication Details
  • CHI 2011
  • May 7, 2011

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For document visualization, folding techniques provide a focus-plus-context approach with fairly high legibility on flat sections. To enable richer interaction, we explore the design space of multi-touch document folding. We discuss several design considerations for simple modeless gesturing and compatibility with standard Drag and Pinch gestures, and categorize gesture models along the characteristics of Symmetric/Asymmetric and Sequential/Parallel, which yields three gesture models. We built a prototype document workspace application that integrates folding and standard gestures, and a prototype for experimenting with the gesture models. A user study was conducted to compare the three models and to analyze the factors of fold direction, target symmetry, and target tolerance in user performance of folding a document to a specific shape. Our results indicate that all three factors were significant for task times, and parallelism was greater for symmetric targets.
Publication Details
  • CHI 2011 workshop on Video interaction - Making broadcasting a successful social media
  • May 7, 2011

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A variety of applications are emerging to support streaming video from mobile devices. However, many tasks can benefit from streaming specific content rather than the full video feed which may include irrelevant, private, or distracting content. We describe a system that allows users to capture and stream targeted video content captured with a mobile device. The application incorporates a variety of automatic and interactive techniques to identify and segment desired content, allowing the user to publish a more focused video stream.
Publication Details
  • ACM International Conference on Multimedia Retrieval (ICMR)
  • Apr 17, 2011

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User-generated video from mobile phones, digital cameras, and other devices is increasing, yet people rarely want to watch all the captured video. More commonly, users want a single still image for printing or a short clip from the video for creating a panorama or for sharing. Our interface aims to help users search through video for these images or clips in a more efficient fashion than fast-forwarding or "scrubbing" through a video by dragging through locations on a slider. It is based on a hierarchical structure of keyframes in the video, and combines a novel user interface design for browsing a video segment tree with new algorithms for keyframe selection, segment identification, and clustering. These algorithms take into account the need for quality keyframes and balance the desire for short navigation paths and similarity-based clusters. Our user interface presents keyframe hierarchies and displays visual cues for keeping the user oriented while browsing the video. The system adapts to the task by using a non-temporal clustering algorithm when a the user wants a single image. When the user wants a video clip, the system selects one of two temporal clustering algorithm based on a measure of the repetitiveness of the video. User feedback provided us with valuable suggestions for improvements to our system.
Publication Details
  • ACM International Conference on Multimedia Retrieval (ICMR) 2011
  • Apr 17, 2011

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Embedded Media Marker (EMM) identification system allows users to retrieve relevant dynamic media associated with a static paper document via camera phones. The user supplies a query image by capturing an EMM-signified patch of a paper document through a camera phone; the system recognizes the query and in turn retrieves and plays the corresponding media on the phone. Accurate image matching is crucial for positive user experience in this application. To address the challenges posed by large datasets and variations in camera-phone-captured query images, we introduce a novel image matching scheme based on geometrically consistent correspondences. Two matching constraints - "injection" and "approximate global geometric consistency" (AGGC), which are unique in EMM identification, are presented. A hierarchical scheme, combined with two constraining functions, is designed to detect the "injective-AGGC" correspondences between images. A spatial neighborhood search approach is further proposed to address challenging cases with large translational shift. Experimental results on a 100k+ dataset show that our solution achieves high accuracy with low memory and time complexity and outperforms the standard bag-of-words approach.

Quantum Computing: A Gentle Introduction

Publication Details
  • MIT Press
  • Mar 18, 2011

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The combination of two of the twentieth century's most influential and revolutionary scientific theories, information theory and quantum mechanics, gave rise to a radically new view of computing and information. Quantum information processing explores the implications of using quantum mechanics instead of classical mechanics to model information and its processing. Quantum computing is not about changing the physical substrate on which computation is done from classical to quantum but about changing the notion of computation itself, at the most basic level. The fundamental unit of computation is no longer the bit but the quantum bit or qubit. This comprehensive introduction to the field offers a thorough exposition of quantum computing and the underlying concepts of quantum physics, explaining all the relevant mathematics and offering numerous examples. With its careful development of concepts and thorough explanations, the book makes quantum computing accessible to students and professionals in mathematics, computer science, and engineering. A reader with no prior knowledge of quantum physics (but with sufficient knowledge of linear algebra) will be able to gain a fluent understanding by working through the book. The text covers the basic building blocks of quantum information processing, quantum bits and quantum gates, showing their relationship to the key quantum concepts of quantum measurement, quantum state transformation, and entanglement between quantum subsystems; it treats quantum algorithms, discussing notions of complexity and describing a number of simple algorithms as well as the most significant algorithms to date; and it explores entanglement and robust quantum computation, investigating such topics as quantifying entanglement, decoherence, quantum error correction, and fault tolerance.

Augmented Perception through Mirror Worlds

Publication Details
  • Augmented Human 2011
  • Mar 12, 2011

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We describe a system that mirrors a public physical space into cyberspace to provide people with augmented awareness of that space. Through views on web pages, portable devices, or on `Magic Window' displays located in the physical space, remote people may `look in' to the space, while people within the space are provided information not apparent through unaided perception. For example, by looking at a mirror display, people can learn how long others have been present, where they have been, etc. People in one part of a building can get a sense of the activities in the rest of the building, who is present in their office, look in to a talk in another room, etc. We describe a prototype for such a system developed in our research lab and office space.

DiG: A task-based approach to product search

Publication Details
  • IUI 2011
  • Feb 13, 2011

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While there are many commercial systems designed to help people browse and compare products, these interfaces are typically product centric. To help users more efficiently identify products that match their needs, we instead focus on building a task centric interface and system. With this approach, users initially answer questions about the types of situations in which they expect to use the product. The interface reveals the types of products that match their needs and exposes high-level product features related to the kinds of tasks in which they have expressed an interest. As users explore the interface, they can reveal how those high-level features are linked to actual product data, including customer reviews and product specifications. We developed semi-automatic methods to extract the high-level features used by the system from online product data. These methods identify and group product features, mine and summarize opinions about those features, and identify product uses. User studies verified our focus on high-level features for browsing and low-level features and specifications for comparison.  

Privacy-Preserving Aggregation of Time-Series Data

Publication Details
  • NDSS 2011
  • Feb 6, 2011

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We consider how an untrusted data aggregator can learn desired statistics over multiple participants' data, without compromising each individual's privacy. We propose a construction that allows a group of participants to periodically upload encrypted values to a data aggregator, such that the aggregator is able to compute the sum of all participants' values in every time period, but is unable to learn anything else. We achieve strong privacy guarantees using two main techniques. First, we show how to utilize applied cryptographic techniques to allow the aggregator to decrypt the sum from multiple ciphertexts encrypted under different user keys. Second, we describe a distributed data randomization procedure that guarantees the differential privacy of the outcome statistic, even when a subset of participants might be compromised.
Publication Details
  • IS&T and SPIE International Conference on Multimedia Content Access: Algorithms and Systems
  • Jan 23, 2011

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This paper describes research activities at FX Palo Alto Laboratory (FXPAL) in the area of multimedia browsing, search, and retrieval. We first consider interfaces for organization and management of personal photo collections. We then survey our work on interactive video search and retrieval. Throughout we discuss the evolution of both the research challenges in these areas and our proposed solutions.
Publication Details
  • Fuji Xerox Technical Report
  • Jan 1, 2011

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Embedded Media Markers, or simply EMMs, are nearly transparent iconic marks printed on paper documents that signify the existence of media associated with that part of the document. EMMs also guide users' camera operations for media retrieval. Users take a picture of an EMM-signified document patch using a cell phone, and the media associated with the EMM-signified document location is displayed on the phone. Unlike bar codes, EMMs are nearly transparent and thus do not interfere with the document appearance. Retrieval of media associated with an EMM is based on image local features of the captured EMM-signified document patch. This paper describes a technique for semi-automatically placing an EMM at a location in a document, in such a way that it encompasses sufficient identification features with minimal disturbance to the original document.
Publication Details
  • Encyclopledia of the Sciences of Learning
  • Jan 1, 2011

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Supervised Learning is a machine learning paradigm for acquiring the input-output relationship information of a system based on a given set of paired input-output training samples. As the output is regarded as the label of the input data or the supervision, an input-output training sample is also called labelled training data, or supervised data. Occasionally, it is also referred to as Learning with a Teacher (Haykin 1998), Learning from Labelled Data, or Inductive Machine Learning (Kotsiantis, 2007). The goal of supervised learning is to build an artificial system that can learn the mapping between the input and the output, and can predict the output of the system given new inputs. If the output takes a finite set of discrete values that indicate the class labels of the input, the learned mapping leads to the classification of the input data. If the output takes continuous values, it leads to a regression of the input. The input-output relationship information is frequently represented with learning-model parameters. When these parameters are not directly available from training samples, a learning system needs to go through an estimation process to obtain these parameters. Different form Unsupervised Learning, the training data for Supervised Learning need supervised or labelled information, while the training data for unsupervised learning are unsupervised as they are not labelled (i.e., merely the inputs). If an algorithm uses both supervised and unsupervised training data, it is called a Semi-supervised Learning algorithm. If an algorithm actively queries a user/teacher for labels in the training process, the iterative supervised learning is called Active Learning.
2010
Publication Details
  • ACM International Conference on Multimodal Interfaces
  • Nov 8, 2010

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Embedded Media Barcode Links, or simply EMBLs, are optimally blended iconic barcode marks, printed on paper documents, that signify the existence of multimedia associated with that part of the document content (Figure 1). EMBLs are used for multimedia retrieval with a camera phone. Users take a picture of an EMBL-signified document patch using a cell phone, and the multimedia associated with the EMBL-signified document location is displayed on the phone. Unlike a traditional barcode which requires an exclusive space, the EMBL construction algorithm acts as an agent to negotiate with a barcode reader for maximum user and document benefits. Because of this negotiation, EMBLs are optimally blended with content and thus have less interference with the original document layout and can be moved closer to a media associated location. Retrieval of media associated with an EMBL is based on the barcode identification of a captured EMBL. Therefore, EMBL retains nearly all barcode identification advantages, such as accuracy, speed, and scalability. Moreover, EMBL takes advantage of users' knowledge of a traditional barcode. Unlike Embedded Media Maker (EMM) which requires underlying document features for marker identification, EMBL has no requirement for the underlying features. This paper will discuss the procedures for EMBL construction and optimization. It will also give experimental results that strongly support the EMBL construction and optimization ideas.
Publication Details
  • Information Processing & Management, 46 (6), pp. 629-631
  • Nov 1, 2010

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This special issue brings together papers that describe some of the many ways that collaborative information seeking manifests itself. Some papers report on collaborative practices in a range of domains, including medical (Hertzum), legal (Attfield et al.), and online Q&A (Gazan). Others propose and evaluate models of collaborative activity (Evans and Chi; Evans et al.; Wilson and schraefel; Foley and Smeaton), and others describe systems and algorithms that support collaboration in various ways (Boydell and Smyth; Fernandez-Luna et al., Halvey et al., Morris et al.; Shah et al.).

Role-based results redistribution for collaborative information retrieval

Publication Details
  • Information Processing & Management, 46 (6), pp. 773-781
  • Nov 1, 2010

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We describe a new approach for algorithmic mediation of a collaborative search process. Unlike most approaches to collaborative IR, we are designing systems that mediate explicitly-defined synchronous collaboration among small groups of searchers with a shared information need. Such functionality is provided by first obtaining different rank-lists based on searchers' queries, fusing these rank-lists, and then splitting the combined list to distribute documents among collaborators according to their roles. For the work reported here, we consider the case of two people collaborating on a search. We assign them roles of Gatherer and Surveyor: the Gatherer is tasked with exploring highly promising information on a given topic, and the Surveyor is tasked with digging further to explore more diverse information. We demonstrate how our technique provides the Gatherer with high-precision results, and the Surveyor with information that is high in entropy.

Reverted Indexing for Feedback and Expansion

Publication Details
  • ACM Conference on Information and Knowledge Management (CIKM 2010)
  • Oct 26, 2010

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Traditional interactive information retrieval systems function by creating inverted lists, or term indexes. For every term in the vocabulary, a list is created that contains the documents in which that term occurs and its relative frequency within each document. Retrieval algorithms then use these term frequencies alongside other collection statistics to identify the matching documents for a query. In this paper, we turn the process around: instead of indexing documents, we index query result sets. First, queries are run through a chosen retrieval system. For each query, the resulting document IDs are treated as terms and the score or rank of the document is used as the frequency statistic. An index of documents retrieved by basis queries is created. We call this index a reverted index. Finally, with reverted indexes, standard retrieval algorithms can retrieve the matching queries (as results) for a set of documents (used as queries). These recovered queries can then be used to identify additional documents, or to aid the user in query formulation, selection, and feedback.