Publications

FXPAL publishes in top scientific conferences and journals.

2007
Publication Details
  • IEEE Pervasive Computing Magazine, Vol. 6, No. 3, Jul-Sep 2007.
  • Jul 1, 2007

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AnySpot is a web service-based platform for seamlessly connecting people to their personal and shared documents wherever they go. We describe the principles behind AnySpot's design and report our experience deploying it in a large, multi-national organization.
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  • Pervasive 2007 Invited Demo
  • May 13, 2007

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We present an investigation of interaction models for slideshow applications in a multi-display environment. Three models are examined: Direct Manipulation, Billiard Ball, and Flow. These concepts can be demonstrated by the ModSlideShow prototype, which is designed as a configurable modular display system where each display unit communicates with its neighbors and fundamental operations that act locally can be composed to support the higher level interaction models. We also describe the gesture input scheme, animation feedback, and other enhancements.
Publication Details
  • CHI 2007, pp. 1167-1176
  • Apr 28, 2007

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A common video surveillance task is to keep track of people moving around the space being monitored. It is often difficult to track activity between cameras because locations such as hallways in office buildings can look quite similar and do not indicate the spatial proximity of the cameras. We describe a spatial video player that orients nearby video feeds with the field of view of the main playing video to aid in tracking between cameras. This is compared with the traditional bank of cameras with and without interactive maps for identifying and selecting cameras. We additionally explore the value of static and rotating maps for tracking activity between cameras. The study results show that both the spatial video player and the map improve user performance when compared to the camera-bank interface. Also, subjects change cameras more often with the spatial player than either the camera bank or the map, when available.
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  • CHI 2007
  • Apr 28, 2007

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We present the iterative design of Momento, a tool that provides integrated support for situated evaluation of ubiquitous computing applications. We derived requirements for Momento from a user-centered design process that included interviews, observations and field studies of early versions of the tool. Motivated by our findings, Momento supports remote testing of ubicomp applications, helps with participant adoption and retention by minimizing the need for new hardware, and supports mid-to-long term studies to address infrequently occurring data. Also, Momento can gather log data, experience sampling, diary, and other qualitative data.
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  • IEEE Transactions on Multimedia
  • Apr 1, 2007

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We present a general approach to temporal media segmentation using supervised classification. Given standard low-level features representing each time sample, we build intermediate features via pairwise similarity. The intermediate features comprehensively characterize local temporal structure, and are input to an efficient supervised classifier to identify shot boundaries. We integrate discriminative feature selection based on mutual information to enhance performance and reduce processing requirements. Experimental results using large-scale test sets provided by the TRECVID evaluations for abrupt and gradual shot boundary detection are presented, demonstrating excellent performance.

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3D renderings can often look cold and impersonal or even cartoonish. They can also appear too crisply detailed . This can cause viewers to concentrate on specific details when they should be focusing on a more general idea or concept. With the techniques covered in this tutorial you will be able to turn your 3D renderings into "hand drawn" looking illustrations.

Context-Aware Telecommunication Services

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  • UNESCO Encyclopedia of Life Support Systems
  • Apr 1, 2007

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This chapter describes how the changing information about an individual's location, environment, and social situation can be used to initiate and facilitate people's interactions with one another, individually and in groups. Context-aware communication is contrasted with other forms of context-aware computing and we characterize applications in terms of design decisions along two dimensions: the extent of autonomy in context sensing and the extent of autonomy in communication action. A number of context-aware communication applications from the research literature are presented in five application categories. Finally, a number of issues related to the design of context-aware communication applications are presented.
Publication Details
  • Proceedings of the AAAI Spring Symposium 2007 on quantum interaction organized by Keith von Rijsbergen, Peter Bruza, Bill Lawless, and Don Sofge
  • Mar 26, 2007

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This survey, aimed at information processing researchers, highlights intriguing but lesser known results, corrects misconceptions, and suggests research areas. Themes include: certainty in quantum algorithms; the "fewer worlds" theory of quantum mechanics; quantum learning; probability theory versus quantum mechanics.
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  • Book chapter in: A Document (Re)turn. Contributions from a Research Field in Transition (Taschenbuch), Roswitha Skare, Niels Windfeld Lund, Andreas Vårheim (eds.), Peter Lang Publishing, Incorporated, 2007.
  • Feb 19, 2007

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When people are checking in to flights, making reports to their company manager, composing music, delivering papers for exams in schools, or examining patients in hospitals, they all deal with documents and processes of documentation. In earlier times, documentation took place primarily in libraries and archives. While the latter are still important document institutions, documents today play a far more essential role in social life in many different domains and cultures. In this book, which celebrates the ten year anniversary of documentation studies in Tromsø, experts from many different disciplines, professional domains as well as cultures around the world present their way of dealing with documents, demonstrating many potential directions for the emerging broad field of documentation studies.

Adaptive News Access

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  • Book chapter in "The Adaptive Web: Methods and Strategies of Web Personalization" (Springer, LNCS #4321)
  • Feb 1, 2007

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This chapter describes how the adaptive web technologies discussed in this book have been applied to news access. First, we provide an overview of different types of adaptivity in the context of news access and identify corre-sponding algorithms. For each adaptivity type, we briefly discuss representative systems that use the described techniques. Next, we discuss an in-depth case study of a personalized news system. As part of this study, we outline a user modeling approach specifically designed for news personalization, and present results from an evaluation that attempts to quantify the effect of adaptive news access from a user perspective. We conclude by discussing recent trends and novel systems in the adaptive news space.

Content-based Recommendation Systems

Publication Details
  • Book chapter in "The Adaptive Web: Methods and Strategies of Web Personalization" (Springer, LNCS #4321)
  • Feb 1, 2007

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This chapter discusses content-based recommendation systems, i.e., systems that recommend an item to a user based upon a description of the item and a profile of the user's interests. Content-based recommendation systems may be used in a variety of domains ranging from recommending web pages, news articles, restau-rants, television programs, and items for sale. Although the details of various systems differ, content-based recommendation systems share in common a means for describing the items that may be recommended, a means for creating a profile of the user that describes the types of items the user likes, and a means of comparing items to the user profile to determine what to recommend. The user profile is often created and updated automatically in response to feedback on the desirability of items that have been presented to the user.
Publication Details
  • PSD Magazine 2/2007 - Photoshop Art & Special Effects
  • Feb 1, 2007

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With the techniques covered in this tutorial you will be able to produce two classic visual effects. First, I'll show you how to make animated titles by importing Photoshop files into Aftereffects. Next we'll add new scenic elements to some video footage, again using Photoshop. This technique will allow you to add or remove elements like tree or buildings from a shot. These techniques, especially the one we will use to alter the scene, are common to most visual effects. Watch the classic old 1933 version of King Kong. Willis O'Brien, the stop motion genius that animated Kong, pioneered the art of extending, or completely fabricating, scenery. Layering several elements painted on glass in front his puppets and rear projected footage allowed O'brien and RKO's visual effects artist Linwood Dunn to create King Kong's fantastic jungle scenes. It is said that these set-ups could be many feet deep.
2006
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  • Henry Hexmoor, Marcin Paprzycki, Niranjan Suri (eds) Scalable Computing: Practice and Experience Volume 7, No. 4, December 2006
  • Dec 23, 2006

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Current search engines crawl the Web, download content, and digest this content locally. For multimedia content, this involves considerable volumes of data. Furthermore, this process covers only publicly available content because content providers are concerned that they otherwise loose control over the distribution of their intellectual property. We present the prototype of our secure and distributed search engine, which dynamically pushes content based feature extraction to image providers. Thereby, the volume of data that is transported over the network is significantly reduced, and the concerns mentioned above are alleviated. The distribution of feature extraction and matching algorithms is done by mobile software agents. Subsequent search requests performed upon the resulting feature indices by means of remote feature comparison can either be realized through mobile software agents, or by the use of implicitly created Web services which wrap the remote comparison functionality, and thereby improve the interoperability of the search engine. We give a description of the search engine's architecture and implementation, depict our concepts to integrate agent and Web service technology, and present quantitative evaluation results. Furthermore, we discuss related security mechanisms for content protection and server security.

Security Risks in Java-based Mobile Code Systems

Publication Details
  • Henry Hexmoor, Marcin Paprzycki, Niranjan Suri (eds) Scalable Computing: Practice and Experience Volume 7, No. 4, December 2006
  • Dec 23, 2006

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Java is the predominant language for mobile agent systems, both for implementing mobile agent execution environments and for writing mobile agent applications. This is due to inherent support for code mobility by means of dynamic class loading and separable class name spaces, as well as a number of security properties, such as language safety and access control by means of stack introspection. However, serious questions must be raised whether Java is actually up to the task of providing a secure execution environment for mobile agents. At the time of writing, it has neither resource control nor proper application separation. In this article we take an in-depth look at Java as a foundation for secure mobile agent systems.
Publication Details
  • MobCops 2006 Workshop in conjunction with IEEE/ACM CollaborateCom 2006, Atlanta, Georgia, USA.
  • Nov 17, 2006

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Load balancing has been an increasingly important issue for handling computational intensive tasks in a distributed system such as in Grid and cluster computing. In such systems, multiple server instances are installed for handling requests from client applications, and each request (or task) typically needs to stay in a queue before an available server is assigned to process it. In this paper, we propose a high-performance queueing method for implementing a shared queue for collaborative clusters of servers. Each cluster of servers maintains a local queue and queues of different clusters are networked to form a unified (or shared) queue that may dispatch tasks to all available servers. We propose a new randomized algorithm for forwarding requests in an overcrowded local queue to a networked queue based on load information of the local and neighboring clusters. The algorithm achieves both load balancing and locality awareness.

Term Context Models for Information Retrieval

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  • CIKM (Conference on information and Knowledge Management) 2006, Arlington, VA
  • Nov 7, 2006

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At their heart, most if not all information retrieval models utilize some form of term frequency. The notion is that the more often a query term occurs in a document, the more likely it is that document meets an information need. We examine an alternative. We propose a model which assesses the presence of a term in a document not by looking at the actual occurrence of that term, but by a set of nonindependent supporting terms, i.e. context. This yields a weighting for terms in documents which is different from and complementary to tf-based methods, and is beneficial for retrieval.
Publication Details
  • In Proceedings of the fourth ACM International Workshop on Video Surveillance & Sensor Networks VSSN '06, Santa Barbara, CA, pp. 19-26
  • Oct 27, 2006

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Video surveillance systems have become common across a wide number of environments. While these installations have included more video streams, they also have been placed in contexts with limited personnel for monitoring the video feeds. In such settings, limited human attention, combined with the quantity of video, makes it difficult for security personnel to identify activities of interest and determine interrelationships between activities in different video streams. We have developed applications to support security personnel both in analyzing previously recorded video and in monitoring live video streams. For recorded video, we created storyboard visualizations that emphasize the most important activity as heuristically determined by the system. We also developed an interactive multi-channel video player application that connects camera views to map locations, alerts users to unusual and suspicious video, and visualizes unusual events along a timeline for later replay. We use different analysis techniques to determine unusual events and to highlight them in video images. These tools aid security personnel by directing their attention to the most important activity within recorded video or among several live video streams.
Publication Details
  • UIST 2006 Companion
  • Oct 16, 2006

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Video surveillance requires keeping the human in the loop. Software can aid security personnel in monitoring and using video. We have developed a set of interface components designed to locate and follow important activity within security video. By recognizing and visualizing localized activity, presenting overviews of activity over time, and temporally and geographically contextualizing video playback, we aim to support security personnel in making use of the growing quantity of security video.
Publication Details
  • UIST 2006 Companion
  • Oct 16, 2006

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With the growing quantity of security video, it becomes vital that video surveillance software be able to support security personnel in monitoring and tracking activities. We have developed a multi-stream video player that plays recorded and live videos while drawing the users' attention to activity in the video. We will demonstrate the features of the video player and in particular, how it focuses on keeping the human in the loop and drawing their attention to activities in the video.
Publication Details
  • Proceedings of IEEE Multimedia Signal Processing 2006
  • Oct 3, 2006

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This paper presents a method for facilitating document redirection in a physical environment via a mobile camera. With this method, a user is able to move documents among electronic devices, post a paper document to a selected public display, or make a printout of a white board with simple point-and-capture operations. More specifically, the user can move a document from its source to a destination by capturing a source image and a destination image in a consecutive order. The system uses SIFT (Scale Invariant Feature Transform) features of captured images to identify the devices a user is pointing to, and issues corresponding commands associated with identified devices. Unlike RF/IR based remote controls, this method uses object visual features as an all time 'transmitter' for many tasks, and therefore is easy to deploy. We present experiments on identifying three public displays and a document scanner in a conference room for evaluation.

The USE Project: Designing Smart Spaces for Real People

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  • UbiComp 2006 Workshop position paper
  • Sep 20, 2006

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We describe our work-in-progress: a "wizard-free" conference room designed for ease of use, yet retaining next-generation functionality. Called USE (Usable Smart Environments), our system uses multi-display systems, immersive conferencing, and secure authentication. It is based in cross-cultural ethnographic studies on the way people use conference rooms. The USE project has developed a flexible, extensible architecture specifically designed to enhance ease of use in smart environment technologies. The architecture allows customization and personalization of smart environments for particular people and groups, types of work, and specific physical spaces. The system consists of a database of devices with attributes, rooms and meetings that implements a prototype-instance inheritance mechanism through which contextual information (e.g. IP addresses application settings, phone numbers for teleconferencing systems, etc.) can be associated

Usable ubiquitous computing in next generation conference rooms: design, architecture and evaluation

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  • International workshop at UbiComp 2006.
  • Sep 17, 2006

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In the UbiComp 2005 workshop "Ubiquitous computing in next generation conference rooms" we learned that usability is one of the primary challenges in these spaces. Nearly all "smart" rooms, though they often have interesting and effective functionality, are very difficult to simply walk in and use. Most such rooms have resident experts who keep the room's systems functioning, and who often must be available on an everyday basis to enable the meeting technologies. The systems in these rooms are designed for and assume the presence of these human "wizards"; they are seldom designed with usability in mind. In addition, people don't know what to expect in these rooms; as yet there is no technology standard for next-generation conference rooms. The challenge here is to strike an effective balance between usability and new kinds of functionality (such as multiple displays, new interfaces, rich media systems, new uploading/access/security systems, robust mobile integration, to name just a few of the functions we saw in last year's workshop). So, this year, we propose a workshop to focus more specifically on how the design of next-generation conference rooms can support usability: the tasks facing the real people who use these rooms daily. Usability in ubiquitous computing has been the topic of several papers and workshops. Focusing on usability in next-generation conference rooms lets us bring to bear some of the insights from this prior work in a delineated application space. In addition the workshop will be informed by the most recent usability research in ubiquitous computing, rich media, context-aware mobile systems, multiple display environments, and interactive physical environments. We also are vitally concerned with how usability in smart environments tracks (or doesn't) across cultures. Conference room research has been and remains a focal point for some of the most interesting and applied work in ubiquitous computing. It is also an area where there are many real-world applications and daily opportunities for user feed-back: in short, a rich area for exploring usable ubiquitous computing. We see a rich opportunity to draw together researchers not only from conference room research but also from areas such as interactive furniture/smart environments, rich media, social computing, remote conferencing, and mobile devices for a lively exchange of ideas on usability in applied ubicomp systems for conference rooms.
Publication Details
  • International Conference on Pattern Recognition
  • Aug 20, 2006

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This paper describes a framework for detecting unusual events in surveillance videos. Most surveillance systems consist of multiple video streams, but traditional event detection systems treat individual video streams independently or combine them in the feature extraction level through geometric reconstruction. Our framework combines multiple video streams in the inference level, with a coupled hidden Markov Model (CHMM). We use two-stage training to bootstrap a set of usual events, and train a CHMM over the set. By thresholding the likelihood of a test segment being generated by the model, we build a unusual event detector. We evaluate the performance of our detector through qualitative and quantitative experiments on two sets of real world videos.
Publication Details
  • Interactive Video; Algorithms and Technologies Hammoud, Riad (Ed.) 2006, XVI, 250 p., 109 illus., Hardcover.
  • Jun 7, 2006

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This chapter describes tools for browsing and searching through video to enable users to quickly locate video passages of interest. Digital video databases containing large numbers of video programs ranging from several minutes to several hours in length are becoming increasingly common. In many cases, it is not sufficient to search for relevant videos, but rather to identify relevant clips, typically less than one minute in length, within the videos. We offer two approaches for finding information in videos. The first approach provides an automatically generated interactive multi-level summary in the form of a hypervideo. When viewing a sequence of short video clips, the user can obtain more detail on the clip being watched. For situations where browsing is impractical, we present a video search system with a flexible user interface that incorporates dynamic visualizations of the underlying multimedia objects. The system employs automatic story segmentation, and displays the results of text and image-based queries in ranked sets of story summaries. Both approaches help users to quickly drill down to potentially relevant video clips and to determine the relevance by visually inspecting the material.

Visualization in Audio-Based Music Information Retrieval

Publication Details
  • Computer Music Journal Vol. 30, Issue 2, pp. 42-62, 2006.
  • Jun 6, 2006

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Music Information Retrieval (MIR) is an emerging research area that explores how music stored digitally can be effectively organized, searched, retrieved and browsed. The explosive growth of online music distribution, portable music players and lowering costs of recording indicate that in the near future most of recorded music in human history will be available digitally. MIR is steadily growing as a research area as can be evidenced by the international conference on music information retrieval (ISMIR) series soon in its sixth year and the increasing number of MIR-related publications in the Computer Music Journal as well as other journals and conferences.
Publication Details
  • Complexity, Vol 11, No 5.
  • Jun 3, 2006

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Technology-the collection of devices and methods available to human society-evolves by constructing new devices and methods from ones that previously exist, and in turn offering these as possible components-building blocks-for the construction of further new devices and elements. The collective of technology in this way forms a network of elements where novel elements are created from existing ones and where more complicated elements evolve from simpler ones. We model this evolution within a simple artificial system on the computer. The elements in our system are logic circuits. New elements are formed by combination from simpler existing elements (circuits), and if a novel combination satisfies one of a set of needs it is retained as a building block for further combination. We study the properties of the resulting buildout. We find that our artificial system can create complicated technologies (circuits), but only by first creating simpler ones as building blocks. Our results mirror Lenski et al.'s, that complex features can be created in biological evolution only if simpler functions are first favored and act as stepping stones. We also find evidence that the resulting collection of technologies exists at self-organized criticality.
Publication Details
  • Proceedings of AVI '06 (Short Paper), ACM Press, pp. 258-261.
  • May 23, 2006

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During grouping tasks for data exploration and sense-making, the criteria are normally not well-defined. When users are bringing together data objects thought to be similar in some way, implicit brushing continually detects for groups on the freeform workspace, analyzes the groups' text content or metadata, and draws attention to related data by displaying visual hints and animation. This provides helpful tips for further grouping, group meaning refinement and structure discovery. The sense-making process is further enhanced by retrieving relevant information from a database or network during the brushing. Closely related to implicit brushing, target snapping provides a useful means to move a data object to one of its related groups on a large display. Natural dynamics and smooth animations also help to prevent distractions and allow users to concentrate on the grouping and thinking tasks. Two different prototype applications, note grouping for brainstorming and photo browsing, demonstrate the general applicability of the technique.
Publication Details
  • The 15th International World Wide Web Conference (WWW2006)
  • May 23, 2006

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In a landmark article, over a half century ago, Vannevar Bush envisioned a "Memory Extender" device he dubbed the "memex". Bush's ideas anticipated and inspired numerous breakthroughs, including hypertext, the Internet, the World Wide Web, and Wikipedia. However, despite these triumphs, the memex has still not lived up to its potential in corporate settings. One reason is that corporate users often don't have sufficient time or incentives to contribute to a corporate memory or to explore others' contributions. At FXPAL, we are investigating ways to automatically create and retrieve useful corporate memories without any added burden on anyone. In this paper we discuss how ProjectorBox a smart appliance for automatic presentation capture and PAL Bar a system for proactively retrieving contextually relevant corporate memories have enabled us to integrate content from a variety of sources to create a cohesive multimedia corporate memory for our organization.

Tunnel Vector: A New Routing Algorithm with Scalability

Publication Details
  • The 9th IEEE Global Internet Symposium in conjunction with the 25th IEEE INFOCOM Conference, Barcelona, Catalunya, Spain, April 28 - 29, 2006
  • Apr 28, 2006

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Routing algorithms such as Distance Vector and Link States have the routing table size as O(n), where n is the number of destination identifiers, thus providing only limited scalability for large networks when n is high. As the distributed hash table (DHT) techniques are extraordinarily scalable with n, our work aims at adapting a DHT approach to the design of a network-layer routing algorithm so that the average routing table size can be significantly reduced to O(log n) without losing much routing efficiency. Nonetheless, this scheme requires a major breakthrough to address some fundamental challenges. Specifically, unlike a DHT, a network-layer routing algorithm must (1) exchange its control messages without an underlying network, (2) handle link insertion/deletion and link-cost updates, and (3) provide routing efficiency. Thus, we are motivated to propose a new network-layer routing algorithm, Tunnel Vector (TV), using DHT-like multilevel routing without an underlying network. TV exchanges its control messages only via physical links and is self-configurable in response to linkage updates. In TV, the routing path of a packet is near optimal while the routing table size is O(log n) per node, with high probability. Thus, TV is suitable for routing in a very large network.
Publication Details
  • Proceedings of ACM DIS (Designing Interactive Systems) 2006, Penn State, Penn.
  • Apr 5, 2006

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What does a student need to know to be a designer? Beyond a list of separate skills, what mindset does a student need to develop for designerly action now and into the future? In the excitement of the cognitive revolution, Simon proposed a way of thinking about design that promised to make it more manageable and cognitive: to think of design as a planning problem. Yet, as Suchman argued long ago, planning accounts may be applied to problems that are not at base accomplished by planning, to the detriment of design vision. This paper reports on a pedagogy that takes Suchman's criticism to heart and avoids dressing up design methods as more systematic and predictive than they in fact are. The idea is to teach design through expo-sure to not just one, but rather, many methods---that is, sets of rules or behaviors that produce artifacts for further reflec-tion and development. By introducing a large number of design methods, decoupled from theories, models or frame-works, we teach (a) important cross-methodological regu-larities in competence as a designer, (b) that the practice of design can itself be designed and (c) that method choice affects design outcomes. This provides a rich and produc-tive notion of design particularly necessary for the world of pervasive and ubiquitous computing.
Publication Details
  • EACL (11th Conference of the European Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics)
  • Apr 3, 2006

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Probabilistic Latent Semantic Analysis (PLSA) models have been shown to provide a better model for capturing polysemy and synonymy than Latent Semantic Analysis (LSA). However, the parameters of a PLSA model are trained using the Expectation Maximization (EM) algorithm, and as a result, the trained model is dependent on the initialization values so that performance can be highly variable. In this paper we present a method for using LSA analysis to initialize a PLSA model. We also investigated the performance of our method for the tasks of text segmentation and retrieval on personal-size corpora, and present results demonstrating the efficacy of our proposed approach.
Publication Details
  • International Journal of Web Services Practices
  • Jan 17, 2006

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Mobile users often require access to their documents while away from the office. While pre-loading documents in a repository can make those documents available remotely, people need to know in advance which documents they might need. Furthermore, it may be difficult to view, print, or share the document through a portable device such as cell phone. We describe DoKumobility, a network of web services for mobile users for managing, printing, and sharing documents. In this paper, we describe the infrastructure and illustrate its use with several applications. We conclude with a discussion of lessons learned and future work.
2005

On-Demand Overlay Networking of Collaborative Applications

Publication Details
  • IEEE CollaborateCom 2005 - The First IEEE International Conference on Collaborative Computing: Networking, Applications and Worksharing
  • Dec 19, 2005

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We propose a new overlay network, called Generic Identifier Network (GIN), for collaborative nodes to share objects with transactions across affiliated organizations by merging the organizational local namespaces upon mutual agreement. Using local namespaces instead of a global namespace can avoid excessive dissemination of organizational information, reduce maintenance costs, and improve robustness against external security attacks. GIN can forward a query with an O(1) latency stretch with high probability and achieve high performance. In the absence of a complete distance map, its heuristic algorithms for self configuration are scalable and efficient. Routing tables are maintained using soft-state mechanisms for fault tolerance and adapting to performance updates of network distances. Thus, GIN has significant new advantages for building an efficient and scalable Distributed Hash Table for modern collaborative applications across organizations.
Publication Details
  • Proceedings of SPIE International Symposium ITCom 2005 on Multimedia Systems and Applications VIII, Boston, Massachusetts, USA, October 2005.
  • Dec 7, 2005

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Meeting environments, such as conference rooms, executive briefing centers, and exhibition spaces, are now commonly equipped with multiple displays, and will become increasingly display-rich in the future. Existing authoring / presentation tools such as PowerPoint, however, provide little support for effective utilization of multiple displays. Even using advanced multi-display enabled multimedia presentation tools, the task of assigning material to displays is tedious and distracts presenters from focusing on content. This paper describes a framework for automatically assigning presentation material to displays, based on a model of the quality of views of audience members. The framework is based on a model of visual fidelity which takes into account presentation content, audience members' locations, the limited resolution of human eyes, and display location, orientation, size, resolution, and frame rate. The model can be used to determine presentation material placement based on average or worst case audience member view quality, and to warn about material that would be illegible. By integrating this framework with a previous system for multi-display presentation [PreAuthor, others], we created a tool that accepts PowerPoint and/or other media input files, and automatically generates a layout of material onto displays for each state of the presentation. The tool also provides an interface allowing the presenter to modify the automatically generated layout before or during the actual presentation. This paper discusses the framework, possible application scenarios, examples of the system behavior, and our experience with system use.
Publication Details
  • Video track, ACM Multimedia 2005.
  • Nov 13, 2005

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A Post-Bit is a prototype of a small ePaper device for handling multimedia content, combining interaction control and display into one package. Post-Bits are modeled after paper Post-Its™; the functions of each Post-Bit combine the affordances of physical tiny sticky memos and digital handling of information. Post-Bits enable us to arrange multimedia contents in our embodied physical spaces. Tangible properties of paper such as flipping, flexing, scattering and rubbing are mapped to controlling aspects of the content. In this paper, we introduce the integrated design and functionality of the Post-Bit system, including four main components: the ePaper sticky memo/player, with integrated sensors and connectors; a small container/binder that a few Post-Bits can fit into, for ordering and multiple connections; the data and power port that allows communication with the host com-puter; and finally the software and GUI interface that reside on the host PC and manage multimedia transfer.
Publication Details
  • ACM Multimedia 2005, Technical Demonstrations.
  • Nov 5, 2005

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The MediaMetro application provides an interactive 3D visualization of multimedia document collections using a city metaphor. The directories are mapped to city layouts using algorithms similar to treemaps. Each multimedia document is represented by a building and visual summaries of the different constituent media types are rendered onto the sides of the building. From videos, Manga storyboards with keyframe images are created and shown on the façade; from slides and text, thumbnail images are produced and subsampled for display on the building sides. The images resemble windows on a building and can be selected for media playback. To support more facile navigation between high overviews and low detail views, a novel swooping technique was developed that combines altitude and tilt changes with zeroing in on a target.

Seamless presentation capture, indexing, and management

Publication Details
  • Internet Multimedia Management Systems VI (SPIE Optics East 2005)
  • Oct 26, 2005

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Technology abounds for capturing presentations. However, no simple solution exists that is completely automatic. ProjectorBox is a "zero user interaction" appliance that automatically captures, indexes, and manages presentation multimedia. It operates continuously to record the RGB information sent from presentation devices, such as a presenter's laptop, to display devices, such as a projector. It seamlessly captures high-resolution slide images, text and audio. It requires no operator, specialized software, or changes to current presentation practice. Automatic media analysis is used to detect presentation content and segment presentations. The analysis substantially enhances the web-based user interface for browsing, searching, and exporting captured presentations. ProjectorBox has been in use for over a year in our corporate conference room, and has been deployed in two universities. Our goal is to develop automatic capture services that address both corporate and educational needs.
Publication Details
  • World Conference on E-Learning in Corporate, Government, Healthcare, & Higher Education (E-Learn 2005)
  • Oct 24, 2005

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Automatic lecture capture can help students, instructors, and educational institutions. Students can focus less on note-taking and more on what the instructor is saying. Instructors can provide access to lecture archives to help students study for exams and make-up missed classes. And online lecture recordings can be used to support distance learning. For these and other reasons, there has been great interest in automatically capturing classroom presentations. However, there is no simple solution that is completely automatic. ProjectorBox is our attempt to create a "zero user interaction" appliance that automatically captures, indexes, and manages presentation multimedia. It operates continuously to record the RGB information sent from presentation devices, such as an instructor's laptop, to display devices such as a projector. It seamlessly captures high-resolution slide images, text, and audio. A web-based user interface allows students to browse, search, replay, and export captured presentations.
Publication Details
  • In Proceedings of International Conference on Computer Vision, 2005, page 1026-1033
  • Oct 17, 2005

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Recent years have witnessed the rise of many effective text information retrieval systems. By treating local visual features as terms, training images as documents and input images as queries, we formulate the problem of object recognition into that of text retrieval. Our formulation opens up the opportunity to integrate some powerful text retrieval tools with computer vision techniques. In this paper, we propose to improve the efficiency of articulated object recognition by an Okapi-Chamfer matching algorithm. The algorithm is based on the inverted index technique. The inverted index is a widely used way to effectively organize a collection of text documents. With the inverted index, only documents that contain query terms are accessed and used for matching. To enable inverted indexing in an image database, we build a lexicon of local visual features by clustering the features extracted from the training images. Given a query image, we extract visual features and quantize them based on the lexicon, and then look up the inverted index to identify the subset of training images with non-zero matching score. To evaluate the matching scores in the subset, we combined the modified Okapi weighting formula with the Chamfer distance. The performance of the Okapi-Chamfer matching algorithm is evaluated on a hand posture recognition system. We test the system with both synthesized and real world images. Quantitative results demonstrate the accuracy and efficiency our system.
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  • IEEE Trans. Multimedia, Vol. 7 No. 5, pp. 981-990
  • Oct 11, 2005

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Abstract-We present a system for automatically extracting the region of interest and controlling virtual cameras control based on panoramic video. It targets applications such as classroom lectures and video conferencing. For capturing panoramic video, we use the FlyCam system that produces high resolution, wide-angle video by stitching video images from multiple stationary cameras. To generate conventional video, a region of interest (ROI) can be cropped from the panoramic video. We propose methods for ROI detection, tracking, and virtual camera control that work in both the uncompressed and compressed domains. The ROI is located from motion and color information in the uncompressed domain and macroblock information in the compressed domain, and tracked using a Kalman filter. This results in virtual camera control that simulates human controlled video recording. The system has no physical camera motion and the virtual camera parameters are readily available for video indexing.
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  • http://www.strata.com/gallery_detail.asp?id=1480&page=1&category=48
  • Oct 1, 2005

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I produced these Illustrations for two multimedia applications that were developed by FX Palo Alto Laboratory and California State University at Sacramento's Department of Psychology. The applications were part of a study to see how primary school age children learn with certain multimedia tools. Each illustration was viewed as part of a fairly complex screen of information as well as on its own.
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  • We organized and ran a full-day workshop at the UbiComp 2005 Conference in Tokyo, Japan, September 11, 2005.
  • Sep 29, 2005

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Designing the technologies, applications, and physical spaces for next-generation conference rooms (This is a day-long workshop in Tokyo.) Next-generation conference rooms are often designed to anticipate the onslaught of new rich media presentation and ideation systems. Throughout the past couple of decades, many researchers have attempted to reinvent the conference room, aiming at shared online or visual/virtual spaces, smart tables or walls, media support and tele-conferencing systems of varying complexity. Current research in high-end room systems often features a multiplicity of thin, bright display screens (both large and small), along with interactive whiteboards, robotic cameras, and smart remote conferencing systems. Added into the mix one can find a variety of meeting capture and metadata management systems, automatic or not, focused on capturing different aspects of meetings in different media: to the Web, to one's PDA or phone, or to a company database. Smart spaces and interactive furniture design projects have shown systems embedded in tables, podiums, walls, chairs and even floors and lighting. Exploiting the capabilities of all these technologies in one room, however, is a daunting task. For example, faced with three or more display screens, all but a few presenters are likely to opt for simply replicating the same image on all of them. Even more daunting is the design challenge: how to choose which capabilities are vital to particular tasks, or for a particular room, or are well suited to a particular culture. In this workshop we'll explore how the design of next-generation conference rooms can be informed by the most recent research in rich media, context-aware mobile systems, ubiquitous displays, and interactive physical environments. How should conference room systems reflect the rapidly changing expectations around personal devices and smart spaces? What kinds of systems are needed to support meetings in technologically complex environments? How can design of conference room spaces and technologies account for differing social and cultural practices around meetings? What requirements are imposed by security and privacy issues in public spaces? What aspects of meeting capture and access technologies have proven to be useful, and how should a smart environment enable them? What intersections exist with other research areas such as digital libraries? Conference room research has been and remains a focal point for some of the most interesting and applied work in ubiquitous computing. What lessons can we take from the research to date as we move forward? We are confident that a lively and useful discussion will be engendered by bringing directions from recent ubicomp research in games, multimedia applications, and social software to ongoing research in conference rooms systems: integrating architecture and tangible media, information design and display, and mobile and computer-mediated communications.
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  • Paper presented at SIGGRAPH 2005, Los Angeles.
  • Sep 29, 2005

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The Convertible Podium is a central control station for rich media in next-generation classrooms. It integrates flexible control systems for multimedia software and hardware, and is designed for use in classrooms with multiple screens, multiple media sources and multiple distribution channels. The built-in custom electronics and unique convertible podium frame allows intuitive conversion between use modes (either manual or automatic). The at-a-touch sound and light control system gives control over the classroom environment. Presentations can be pre-authored for effective performance, and quickly altered on the fly. The counter-weighted and motorized conversion system allows one person to change modes simply by lifting the top of the Podium to the correct position for each mode. The Podium is lightweight, mobile, and wireless, and features an onboard 21" LCD display, document cameras and other capture devices, tangible controls for hardware and software, and also possesses embedded RFID sensing for automatic data retrieval and file management. It is designed to ease the tasks involved in authoring and presenting in a rich media classroom, as well as supporting remote telepresence and integration with other mobile devices.
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  • INTERACT '05 short paper
  • Sep 12, 2005

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Indexes such as bookmarks and recommendations are helpful for accessing multimedia documents. This paper describes the 3D Syllabus system, which is designed to visualize indexes to multimedia training content along with the information structures. A double-sided landscape with balloons and cubes represents the personal and group indexes, respectively. The 2D ground plane organizes the indexes as a table and the third dimension of height indicates their importance scores. Additional visual properties of the balloons and cubes provide other information about the indexes and their content. Paths are represented by pipes connecting the balloons. A reliminary evaluation of the 3D Syllabus prototype suggests that it is more efficient than a typical training CD-ROM and is more enjoyable to use.
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  • INTERACT 2005, LNCS 3585, pp. 781-794
  • Sep 12, 2005

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A video database can contain a large number of videos ranging from several minutes to several hours in length. Typically, it is not sufficient to search just for relevant videos, because the task still remains to find the relevant clip, typically less than one minute of length, within the video. This makes it important to direct the users attention to the most promising material and to indicate what material they already investigated. Based on this premise, we created a video search system with a powerful and flexible user interface that incorporates dynamic visualizations of the underlying multimedia objects. The system employes an automatic story segmentation, combines text and visual search, and displays search results in ranked sets of story keyframe collages. By adapting the keyframe collages based on query relevance and indicating which portions of the video have already been explored, we enable users to quickly find relevant sections. We tested our system as part of the NIST TRECVID interactive search evaluation, and found that our user interface enabled users to find more relevant results within the allotted time than other systems employing more sophisticated analysis techniques but less helpful user interfaces.
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  • M.F. Costabile and F. Paternò (Eds.): INTERACT 2005, LNCS 3585
  • Sep 12, 2005

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We developed and studied an experimental system, RealTourist, which lets a user to plan a conference trip with the help of a remote tourist consultant who could view the tourist's eye-gaze superimposed onto a shared map. Data collected from the experiment were analyzed in conjunction with literature review on speech and eye-gaze patterns. This inspective, exploratory research identified various functions of gaze-overlay on shared spatial material including: accurate and direct display of partner's eye-gaze, implicit deictic referencing, interest detection, common focus and topic switching, increased redundancy and ambiguity reduction, and an increase of assurance, confidence, and understanding. This study serves two purposes. The first is to identify patterns that can serve as a basis for designing multimodal human-computer dialogue systems with eye-gaze locus as a contributing channel. The second is to investigate how computer-mediated communication can be supported by the display of the partner's eye-gaze.